Determine whether the evaluated group is a population or a sample
a) Based on a randomly selected group of 500 patients with high cholesterol, it was found that 67% have heart disease. Is this a population or a sample; explain your answer.
b) An investigation of 150 randomly selected local restaurants concluded that 42% of local restaurants have serious health code violations. Is this a population or a sample; explain your answer.
2) Determine whether the given value is a statistic or a parameter.
a) A researcher determines that 42.7% of all downtown office buildings have ventilation problems. Is this a statistic or a parameter; explain your answer.
b) After taking the first exam, 15 of the students dropped the class. Is this a statistic or a parameter; explain your answer.
3) Identify the type of sampling used.
a) A tax auditor selects every 1000th income tax return that is received. What type of sample is this and why?
b) The name of each contestant is written on a separate card, and the cards are placed in a bag with three names being picked from the bag. What type of sample is this and why?
4) Is the study experimental or observation and why?
a) A political pollster reports that his candidate has a 10% lead in the polls with 10% undecided.
5) Select the study that is most appropriate and EXPLAIN WHY it is most appropriate for the study.
a) Is the aspirin produced by a particular pharmaceutical company better than that of a competitor at relieving headaches? Which of the following would best be used to study this: 1) a case-controlled observation; 2) an observation; 3) a double-blind experimental procedure; and 4) and experimental procedure.
From Chapter One
1) Focus on Public Health—On page 44 of the text, it discusses the Harvard Nurses’ Health Study, which is a very well-known study that has been conducted for a number of years. Answer discussion question two at the end of the article.
Explain why the Harvard Nurses’ Health Study is an observational study. Critics sometimes say that the results would be more valid if obtained by experiments rather than observations. Discuss whether it would be possible to gather similar data by carrying out experi- ments in a practical and ethical way
1) Identify the following variables as either qualitative or quantitative and EXPLAIN your answers.
a. The number of people on a jury.
b. The color of your house
2) Identify the number as either continuous or discrete and EXPLAIN your answers.
a. The average height of all freshmen entering college in a certain year is 68.4 inches.
b. The number of limbs on a 2-year-old oak tree is 21.
3) Determine which of the four levels of measurement is most appropriate and explain your answer.
a. Temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit of the ocean at various depths.
b. The rank of individuals in the military
c. The number of people with blue, brown and red hair in a classroom
4) Determine the following (show your work):
a. The speed of a new microprocessor is 800MHZ, but a new test of its speed gives a measurement of 820MHZ. What is the absolute error? What is the relative error?
b. Convert 1/16 to a percent
c. Convert 0.45 to a percent
d. Humanities majors spend an average of $115 per course on books. Mathematics majors spend an average of $70 per course on books.
What is the percent difference between the two amounts relative to the amount for mathematics majors (round to the nearest percent)?
e. Suppose that the cost of a statistics text was $50 in 1985 and is $100 in 2000. What is the “Statistics Text Index” number, rounded to the nearest tenth, for the 2000 edition with the 1985 price as the reference value?
From Chapter Two
2) Focus on Economics—On page 76 and 77, the article looks at an important issue to everyone—the economy. In particular it is focusing on whether our standard of living is improving. Answer discussion question one at the back of the article.
Find examples in your own spending or the spending of friends and family of substitution effects and the purchase of products that were unavailable or lower quality a few years ago. Overall, do you think these examples support the claim that the CPI overstates the effects of inflation? Defend your opinion.
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