Due to the growth of Kansas State University and nearby Ft. Riley, the city of Wildcatland is expected to become a major metropolitan area by 2025. The projected load of Wildcatland in year 2025 is 600 MW and the projected loads at surrounding towns are shown Figure 1. Thus, the combined projected load for the year 2025 of the utility serving this area is 3,000 MW. All of the existing generation except 1-500 MW coal unit at River City will be phased out by year 2025. The existing transmission lines, shown in Figure 1, will remain operational in the year 2025.
New generation and transmission facilities have to be designed to meet the projected load. The designed system should meet the specified environmental and technical constraints, and should be the most economical while maintaining reliability within the given constraints.
⦁ Use levelized annual carrying charge (LACC) of 10% to conduct an optimal mix analysis to determine power plant sizing, and the amount of capacity required.
⦁ 10% of total generation capacity must be from renewable resources, such as wind or solar, to meet the renewable portfolio standards mandated by the State of Kansas (www.kansasenergy.org/renewable_issues.htm).
⦁ A 15% planning margin is required in order to account for forced outages (generator failure) of power plants, spinning reserve, and fluctuations in wind generation.
⦁ Determine sizes and quantity needed for different generators and locate them based on technical and environmental constraints.
⦁ Determine parameters of the equivalent circuit of the transmission lines for the selected tower designs.
⦁ Determine locations of new transmission lines, transformers, and circuit breakers. Only the corridors shown in Figure 2 may be used for the new transmission lines. 500 kV lines will require transformers to interconnect with the 230 kV system.
⦁ Use PowerWorld to conduct power flow computer simulations for peak demand conditions with all facilities in service and River City as the slack bus with 1.02 pu as its voltage. Since renewable generation cannot be dispatched, assume that wind generation will be able to produce power at 30% of its capacity at the peak load, 40% of its capacity at 80% of peak load, 60% of its capacity at 60% and 40% of peak load, and 80% of its capacity at 20% of peak load.
⦁ Determine the capital cost for new equipment installed in the system (i.e., generators, transmission lines, circuit breakers, and transformers).
ENVIRONMENTAL AND TECHNICAL DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
Power Plant Site Selection
⦁ All the new coal units must be located at Ghost Town or River City.
⦁ The combined cycle gas units can only be located at Jayhawk City, River City, Ghost Town, and Wheatfield.
⦁ No new power plants may be located at Capitol, Wildcatland, and Jayhawk City.
⦁ Combustion turbine units can only be located at Grassland, Wheatfield and River City.
⦁ Since Wheatfield has the best wind characteristics, all the new wind generation will be located there.
⦁ Solar generation is very expensive for Kansas and thus will not be included in the generation mix.
System Design Constraints
⦁ Any bus with 500 MW or more of generation must have at least two transmission lines serving it.
⦁ The system should operate with all voltages within the limits of 95% and 105% of the rated voltage as per Standard TPL-001-0.1 — System Performance Under Normal Conditions (www.nerc.com/files/TPL-001_1.pdf))
⦁ No single contingency (i.e., no single line outage) shall result in overload of any transmission line, loss of load, or voltage below 0.95 per unit at any bus as per (n-1) contingency requirements (Standard TPL-002-0b — System Performance Following Loss of a Single BES Element (www.nerc.com/files/TPL-002-0b.pdf)).
⦁ All transmission lines must have circuit breakers located at each end.
⦁ All the loads are assumed to be served from the 230 kV bus at each substation.
⦁ The reactive power (Q) limit on generators is ±30% of real power (P).
⦁ Capacitors can be placed on certain buses to improve the voltage at those buses. A maximum correction of 3% in voltage at any bus due to capacitors is allowed. The cost of capacitors is $4,000/Mvar.
⦁ Use attached figures and tables for the information needed to complete this design project. The paper entitled “The Use of a Design project as an Innovative and Practical Approach to the Teaching of Power Systems” by R. Batencourt and W.V. Torre may be used for guidance.
⦁ Use base voltages of 230 kV/500 kV and base MVA of 100 MVA.
⦁ The O&M cost for wind generators includes payments to the land owners for putting wind farm on their property.
⦁ Pretend that you are a consultant and you are bidding for this project. Obviously, the best design will be selected for the contract. Thus, a good formal report with emphasis on virtues of your design is very important. In addition to technical details, you are also required to provide full details of the total cost for the project. Justification for each decision made by you must be provided in the report. For example, if you decide to use 500 kV lines, you must provide justification for doing so. On the other hand, if you decide not to use 500 kV line, you must justify why you didn’t do so. All computer outputs must be trimmed properly, must have a title, and important results must be highlighted.
⦁ We assumed that wind generation will be able to produce power at certain capacity under different load conditions. How realistic is this assumption? If it produces more power, there is no problem. However, if it produces less power, what would be needed in the plans to make sure enough generation is available. Is there an alternative way to account for wind generation? (Note: This is an open ended question and I would like you to use your best judgment in answering it. I expect at least a one-page description written in your own words.)
⦁ Engineering design requires that in addition to economic impacts we must pay attention to social and environmental impacts, which are closely related to the topic of sustainability. Select one such issue that would be related either to generation or transmission design of your project. Elaborate on this issue based on your own opinion (I expect at least a one-page description written in your own words). You need to do some literature search before forming an opinion on this issue. List your references in the report.
⦁ Although the final report is due on November 20, I will assign additional due dates for the intermediate steps.
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